A. TRAFFIC IMPACT REPORT
A traffic impact report may be required by the County in order to adequately assess the impact of a proposed development on the existing or planned highway network. The primary responsibility for assessing the traffic impacts associated with a proposed development rests with the developer, with the County serving in a review capacity.
The report should describe in quantitative terms how the traffic generated by the proposed development will effect the surrounding transportation system. Furthermore, the report should discuss what, if any, transportation improvements are needed and who’s responsible for the cost of these improvements. A traffic impact report may be required for development equal to or exceeding the traffic generated as shown below or as requested by the County Superintendent of Highways, his/her designee, the town or village.
|Single Family Houses and Condiminiums or Townhouses||100 dwelling units (or more)|
|Apartments||150 dwelling units (or more)|
|Banks||3,000 square feet (or more)|
|Car Wash (Automatic)||All|
|Convenience Store Gas Station||All|
|Industrial and Offices|
|General||Over 50,000 square feet|
|Medical||Over 30,000 square feet|
|Industrial||Over 100,000 square feet|
|Church with Day Care Facility||All|
The developer shall obtain the services of a qualified transportation engineer familiar with preparing traffic impact reports. The transportation engineer should discuss the scope of the study with the County Superintendent of Highways or his/her designee prior to starting the report.
An acceptable traffic impact report normally includes:
- Develop Scope and Identify Study Area
A phone conversation or meeting should occur with the developer/traffic consultant and the affected agencies (Town, County, State) to determine the scope and study area that needs to be reviewed. At that meeting the agencies and consultant should agree upon the trip distribution patterns and trip generation land use code to utilize.
The size of the area to be studied should be based on sound engineering judgment and shall be mutually agreed upon by all involved. A verbal and pictorial description of the area should be included in the report.
- Existing Transportation System
Briefly describe the highway network in the study area including traffic volumes (ADT and Peak Hour, turning movement count diagrams), number of lanes, shoulders, speed limit, level of service, (using the Highway Capacity Manual, etc.). Describe the existing land use and identify any existing traffic problems. A review of the accident history may be appropriate.
- Previously Approved Development
Discuss any planned improvements by others. Note the type, size, location and year of previously approved developments and any planned improvements to the transportation system by these developers or by others. Describe any future traffic problems that these developments may produce.
- Proposed Development
Describe the proposed development, size, location, etc. Utilizing the ITE Trip Generation Manual, latest edition as a resource guide, estimate the number of additional trips generated by the proposed development during the peak travel periods. The times analyzed are usually the a.m./p.m. weekday peak hour. For restaurant and retail development, the weekday Noon, Friday p.m. and Saturday midday should be analyzed.
- Proposed Conditions
Describe how trips were assigned/distributed to the highway network and prepare a diagram showing the routes utilized by the traffic destined to/from this development. Analyze the effects the additional traffic has on the study area–identify the level of service and any problems. Conduct any other traffic analyses needed based on the findings, (i.e.: signal warrants, auxiliary lane warrants, etc.).
Discuss the findings of the study including what improvements, if any, are necessary to maintain a reasonable level of service. Explore the feasibility of encouraging development to utilize alternative modes of transportation, (i.e., buses, walking, bicycling, ridesharing, etc.) and stagger work hours to minimize the impact on adjacent highways.
B. VARIOUS TRAFFIC CONSIDERATIONS
Accesses–driveways, dedicated roadways
It is the County’s goal to minimize the number of driveways and possible conflict points onto County highways. The following are some general guidelines as to number, location, width, etc. of the accesses. However, each location may have specific circumstances and problems, therefore, we reserve the right to modify our guidelines.
- Number of:
- For existing developments that are being expanded/modified, we recommend a thorough analysis be conducted of the existing accesses. Our intent is to minimize the number of accesses by consolidating them with ones under the developer’s control, or combining them with accesses of adjacent properties.
- For multiple lot developments on high traffic volume highways or where the sight distance is limited, we encourage the use of frontage roads in lieu of individual or common driveways.
- When the average daily traffic volume of the development exceeds 5,000 vehicles entering and exiting, two entrance road driveways shall be provided. However, since we do encourage connections between adjacent properties and subdivisions, an existing access from an adjacent development may serve the function of the second access. The location of the driveways will be a function of sight distance and traffic volumes at the intersection.
- For developments located on corner parcels, one access per road may be allowed, depending on the type of use. Accesses shall be located as far from the cross street as feasible.
- When streets or commercial driveways result in offset intersections, a minimum of 200' shall be provided between offset centerlines. A minimum of 15' shall be provided between driveways adjacent to each other, from outside edge to outside edge.
- When the two way average daily entrance road/driveway traffic volume exceeds 1,000 vehicles, then two outbound lanes shall be provided. When delays to left turning exiting vehicles are excessive and/or right turn exiting traffic volumes are significant, then two outbound lanes shall be provided.
- Residential streets shall conform to town standards or be a minimum of 20' in width uncurbed or 24' curbed at the approach, where they intersect the County highway. (Minimum l00’ from the edge of County highway pavement).
- Residential–The minimum width is 10', maximum width is 20'.
- Commercial–For a two way two lane driveway, the standard width shall be 24'. Driveways in excess of 30' in width will be considered on an individual basis.
- Radius curb will be considered for subdivision streets and commercial accesses
- Drop curb will be approved for residential driveways and commercial accesses as follows:
|Residential Street*||20' – 35'|
|Commercial Street**||10' – 50'|
|*30' is the preferred radius, although this may be adjusted based on existing or proposed conditions.
**Radii should be determined by the largest type of vehicle frequently using the proposed access.
If the proposed roadways will be a dedicated Town road, and may become an RTS bus route, then the radius should be a minimum of 30' and may be adjusted to 35' based on the surrounding conditions. Similarly, for all cases, each intersection must be reviewed to determine the existing conditions with respect to vehicle turning movement types and frequency, turning lane and shoulder widths, approach angles, traffic movements.
The point of tangency or curvature of the radii shall meet the line of the existing curb on the County highway. Where radius curbing is used at driveways, drop curbing is not needed unless the driveway slopes away from the roadway. However, when accesses will have curbed radii on County highways without curbs, the point of tangency or curvature must be located at least 17 feet offset of the centerline to the front face of the curb.
|Driveway Width||Apron||Total Width at Curb Line|
|Residential||10' (min.)–20' (max.)||5' each side of driveway||20'–30' (max.)|
|Minor Commercial||10' (min.)–30' (max.)||5'–10' each side of driveway||20'–50' (max.)|
If it is determined that the width of the access must be wider than the maximum allowed, we will consider them on an individual basis.
Left turn lanes on the County highway shall be installed when traffic volumes exceed those in Table I, see page number 17. Left turn lane warrants for four-lane, at-grade intersections shall be determined from the monograph on page 19. However, for 2 lane roads, if a traffic study, gap study, etc., determines that a left turn lane is not justified, the County Superintendent of Highways or designee will consider alternatives, such as:
- A bypass lane, constructed a minimum of 10' wide and 100' long (50' each side of the centerline of the access). The taper lengths shall be in accordance with the New York State Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Device, latest edition.
- A full depth asphalt shoulder, 8' wide, 200' long, 100' each side of the centerline of access with 25' tapers.
If a left turn lane or a right turn lane is justified and recommended, then the consultant must determine the proposed transitions and storage lengths. For left turn lanes, the taper lengths shall be in conformance with the New York State Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Device, latest edition. The storage length of a left turn pocket should be calculated by considering both the volume of left turn traffic, gaps in traffic, and the queue of the through traffic.
For right turn only lanes, the transition may be 50'–75' in length. Similar to left turn lanes, the length of the right turn lane shall consider the right turn volume and the queue of the through vehicles.
If the County Superintendent of Highways determines that the proposed development requires geometric modifications to the County highway network, a 1"=20' plan and specifications shall be prepared by the developer in accordance with County standards showing the modifications. The highway modifications will be completed by the developer at their cost, with all work subject to the review and approval of the County Superintendent of Highways.
If the modifications include traffic signalization, the traffic signal plans and specifications shall be prepared in accordance with County of Monroe standards. Also, a record drawing will need to be prepared and submitted to the Monroe County Department of Transportation upon completion.
Warrants for Left Turn Lanes On Two Lane Roads
Advancing Volume (V.P.H.) per lane.
|V.P.H. Per Lane
|40 MPH OPERATING SPEED|
|50 MPH OPERATING SPEED|
|60 MPH OPERATING SPEED|
Example: 85th percentile speed is 50 mph, with the following volumes:
- Use the table #I for the corresponding speed, therefore, since the speed was 50 mph, use the middle table.
- Find the volume opposing the left turns into the proposed subdivision in Column 1 opposing volume=400–Column 1, Row 3.
- Find the advancing volume (thrush and lefts) on Row 3 of either Column 2, 3, 4 or 5. Advancing volume=320–Column 3, Row 3.
- The heading for Column 3 is 10% left turns, therefore in order for a left turn lane to be warranted, at least 10% of the advancing volume must be turning left. 10% of 320=32, however our generated left turning volume is 15, therefore, a left turn lane is not warranted.
Warrants for Left Turn Lanes On Four Lane Roads
Nomograph for left-turn storage at nonsignalized intersections. The nomograph is used by reading horizontally from the opposing traffic volume, VO, on the vertical axis and reading from the left turn volume, VL, on the horizontal axis and locating the point where the horizontal and vertical lines cross. For example, 100 left turning vehicles per hour, VL, with an opposing volume, VO, of 950 vph, will require a minimum storage length of about 150 feet.
C. PROJECT DRAFTING, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION GUIDELINES
The developer/engineer shall submit, as a minimum, a 17" x 22" with a maximum of 22" x 34" drawing, using a minimum scale of 1" = 50', for the proposed development. At a minimum the following should be shown:
- Development frontage, plus 500' for major development or 200' for minor development, in each direction, on both sides of the County highway showing driveways and intersecting roads.
- All roadways where improvements are proposed by the applicant.
- Property lines, tax account numbers, owners name and addresses of adjacent properties.
- Names of roadways with right-of-way lines and widths including reservations for highway purposes.
- Curb lines - existing and proposed.
- Drainage structures, headwalls, etc., existing and proposed.
- Sidewalks, existing and proposed (where applicable).
- Intersection sight distances for proposed accesses. Trees, bushes and other obstructions that may affect sight distance.
- Utilities - overhead (pole #'s) and underground, existing and proposed (type, dimension and location).
- Storm and sanitary sewers - rim and invert elevations and dimensions of all cross culverts, existing and proposed. Show directional flow arrows.
- Permanent easement descriptions to Monroe County (if required).
- A 3 inch by 2 inch space shall be reserved near the title block on each sheet of the plans for the M.C.D.O.T. project approval stamp.
Design and Construction Guidelines
- Storm sewer connections may be allowed to County storm sewers, however, it is the developers responsibility to determine if the post development runoff rate is less than or equal to or greater than the pre development rate. If the post development rate is greater than the pre development rate, it is the developer's responsibility to perform a drainage study to determine if the downstream County storm sewer system has the capacity to accept additional (greater than pre development rate) flows from any proposed storm sewer connection.
- It is desirable that linear storm sewer systems be installed along the frontage of County roads for all residential developments larger than one lot and all commercial developments bordering a County highway. The size and type of the storm sewer will be determined by the County Superintendent of Highways, or his/her designee, upon review of drainage calculations submitted by the developer. Specific requirements are noted below in Item C. Field inlets (MCDOT type "A", or NYSDOT type "S") shall be required at the upstream side of all access points and at 200’ intervals, or as directed by MCDOT. All storm sewer systems and driveway culverts must be installed on a line and grade with existing upstream and downstream systems to adequately maintain existing roadside drainage.
In the event the sum of the pre-existing drainage run off and the additional run off as a result of the development requires and increase in pipe size up to 36", it will be the developers responsibility to pay for all costs. If the increase in pipe size exceeds 36" in diameter, the County will pay for a percentage of the installation cost based on the amount of the pre-existing run off. A cost estimate shall be prepared by the developer showing both the developer's and the County's share breakdown.
The storm sewer system shall be installed a minimum of 19’ from centerline, and preferably 21’ from centerline of a 2 lane roadway.
If a storm sewer system is not deemed feasible, based on a review by MCDOT, regrading of the existing drainage ditches/swales, and use of practices to enhance stormwater quality shall be considered. If regrading is allowed, the swale/ditch should conform to the following parameters:
- 3 rod (49.5’) ROW - maximum depth = 3’
- 4 rod (66’) ROW - maximum depth = 4’
- all ditch front slopes should be a maximum of 1 on 3
- the cross sectional capacity of the ditch shall be maintained to be equal to or greater than the capacity of all downstream systems
- Considerations for stormwater quality enhancement shall be shown on plans for all development.
Projects which require a driveway culvert, and/or piping in the right-of-way will need the following:
- A simple calculation of how the proposed pipe grade, proposed inverts and size were obtained.
- Upon submitting a site plan for review with a proposed culvert pipe, the plan must also show the invert elevations of the culverts upstream and downstream, or other logical point, i.e. the crest of a vertical curve.
Before the permit for the project can be closed out, a culvert certification will need to be done certifying that the culvert was constructed to the designed culvert elevations. This certification can be as simple as a letter from the Engineer/Surveyor or Contractor saying that they have measured the inverts of the installed culvert pipe(s) and that they are within +/- 0.1 feet of the designed inverts as shown on the approved plan.
A Type A field inlet shall be placed upstream of each driveway or access where a roadside ditch is enclosed with storm pipe. When pipe for roadside ditch enclosures are 24" diameter or greater, a Type "S" drop inlet must be installed instead of the smaller field inlet.
All drop inlets in paved areas of County highways must be Type "S" for pipe sizes up to 24" in diameter. Manholes must be used for pipe sizes larger than 24" in diameter.
On County highways with curbs where the curb lane width is 13' or less, recessed Type "S" drop inlets must be used.
Maximum spacing of drop inlets shall be no more than 200 feet without curbs or gutters and 300 feet with curbs and gutters. All drop inlets or field inlets must be precast or cast in place concrete. Manhole spacing shall be a maximum of 300 feet.
SEE THE GENERAL REQUIREMENTS SECTION FOR ADDITIONAL DESIGN GUIDELINE REQUIREMENTS.
ALL CONSTRUCTION SHALL BE IN ACCORDANCE WITH MONROE COUNTY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS AND DETAILS IN EFFECT WHEN INSTALLED.
A Special Hauling Permit allows a vehicle to carry a non-divisible load (house, large vessels, construction vehicles, etc.) that exceeds the weight and dimensional limits specified in Section 385 of the New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law. The permit shall be subject to the approval of the County Superintendent of Highways, County of Monroe or his/her designee.
In general, a permit shall be required for any vehicles exceeding 80,000 pounds gross vehicle weight, 8'-6" in width, 13'-6" in overall vertical height or 40' in overall single vehicle length.
The applicant shall submit as a minimum, the following information:
- Written comments from the effected towns along the hauling route. Plus a copy of the building permit if the Special Hauling Permit is for a house move.
- Three completed Monroe County Department of Transportation Special Hauling Permit applications.
- The proposed route from point of origin to final destination, indicating all roads which are to be used along the route.
- All bridges, culverts and overhead utilities, such as traffic signals, electric and telephone cables located within the right-of-way of the proposed route.
- Pavement width, number of travel lanes and widths, and right-of-way lines and widths for all roads to be used along the route. Also, indicate if the pavement has curb, gutters or shoulders.
- All existing trees and mailboxes which may be in conflict along the hauling route within the right-of-way.
- Any potential conflicts relevant to vertical and horizontal clearance along the hauling route.
- The overall vertical loaded height, width and length of the hauling equipment, including the object to be moved as well as the axle loading on the pavement.
- All axle weights and spacing between them.
- License plate numbers, year, make and type of truck or tractor that will be used.
- A certificate of insurance as outlined in Appendix A (Related Links) which shall be subject to approval by the County of Monroe for adequacy of protection. The applicant shall also be bonded to perform house moving operations against property damage.
- A fee of $200.00 for each Special Hauling Permit, payable to the Director of Finance, County of Monroe.
- A $5,000.00 security deposit shall be required for all moves. However, if signals are impacted an additional $5,000.00 security deposit may be assessed. $5,000.00 will also be assessed if major bridges/culverts are impacted.
- A copy of the New York State Department of Transportation Special Hauling Permit.
The load shall be inspected by this office before it is moved on to a County highway. Any and all anticipated site disturbances shall require prior notification of residents along the hauling route, as well as the County of Monroe and affected towns and or villages. The applicant shall not remove any existing feature(s) within the County of Monroe right-of-way without obtaining prior written authorization from the County of Monroe. Any existing features damaged or removed as a result of the hauling operation shall be repaired or replaced at the applicants expense.
Once the permit has been approved, the applicant shall notify the Monroe County Department of Transportation (585 753-7710) at least 48 hours prior to the move to indicate actual time and duration of the move. The applicant must also notify in writing the town(s) and or villages(s) officials and all emergency agencies, (police, fire, TrafNet, etc.) of the proposed hauling route.
The applicant shall not perform the hauling operation during the AM/PM peak hours (normally 7:00 a.m. until 9:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m. until 6:00 p.m.) so as to minimize the disruption of traffic unless given prior approval by the County Superintendent of Highways or his/her designee.
The County of Monroe reserves the right to restrict overweight hauling on County highways due to seasonal limitations such as spring thaws, high ground water or other possible seasonal limitations that preclude use of the County highways by overweight vehicles.
ANY VIOLATION OF THE PERMIT REQUIREMENTS COULD RESULT IN A FINE BETWEEN $100 AND $1,000 PER VEHICLE PER DAY AND/OR REVOCATION OF THE PERMIT.
A Divisible Load Permit allows a vehicle to carry a divisible load (i.e., logs, gravel, concrete, etc.) that exceeds the weight limits specified in Section 385 of the New York State Vehicle and Traffic Law.
An approved New York State Divisible Load Permit is required by the Monroe County Department of Transportation in order to permit vehicles to haul on Monroe County highways. The Monroe County Department of Transportation issues our own Divisible Load Permit, subject to approval by the County Superintendent of Highways, County of Monroe or his/her designee, but is issued in the form of a letter to the permittee. Copies of the Monroe County Department of Transportation permit letter shall be kept in each permitted vehicle and attached to the applicable New York State Divisible Load Permit.
The applicant shall submit, as a minimum, the following information to Monroe County Department of Transportation:
- A list of Monroe County highway(s) to be used as hauling routes by the permittee.
- Copies of valid New York State Vehicle Registrations for all affected vehicles.
- Copies of valid New York State Divisible Load Permits for all affected vehicles.
- A Certificate of Insurance meeting Monroe County's insurance requirements as outlined on the attached sheet. Note: Monroe County Department of Transportation does not honor form Perm 17q or any other insurance form from the New York State Department of Transportation.
- A table outlining:
- Make of Vehicle
- License Plate Number
- Vehicle Identification Number
- New York State Divisible Load Permitted Weight
The County of Monroe reserves the right to restrict overweight hauling on County highways due to seasonal limitations such as spring thaws, high ground water or other possible seasonal limitations that preclude use of the County highways by overweight vehicles. A copy of Monroe County's restricted roads will be attached to the approved Monroe County Department of Transportation permit. Note: The hauling operation may be observed from time to time.
Any violation of the permit requirements could result in a fine between $100.00 and $1,000.00 per vehicle, per day and revocation of the permit.
Please return the above items to:
Monroe County Department of Transportation
City Place, Suite 6100
50 West Main Street
Rochester, New York 14614-1231
Phone: 585 753-7710
The maximum legal dimensions (overall, inclusive of load, bumpers, etc.)
|State Highway||Qualifying or Access Highway|
|A||Width of vehicle, inclusive of load||8' 6" ||8' 6"|
|B||Height of vehicle from underside of tire to top of vehicle, inclusive of load||13' 6"||13' 6"|
|C||Length of single vehicle inclusive of load and bumpers||40'||40'|
|D||Length of a combination of vehicles inclusive of load and bumpers||65' ||Unlimited |
|E||Length of a single trailer||48'||53' |
|F||Length of a single twin trailer||28' 6"||28' 6"|
 Except in New York City, Limited to Qualifying or Access Highways and highways with minimum pavement width of 10 feet. Commissioner of Transportation may restrict certain highways.
 Automotive Carriers - Overhang limited to 3' FRONT and 4' REAR. Stinger Steered Car Carriers - Length cannot exceed 75'. Overhang limited to 3' FRONT and 4' REAR. Limited to qualifying and access highways.
 Except in New York City. Limited to Qualifying and Access Highways. Distance from Kingpin to center of rear axle group limited to 41 feet.
- Special Hauling Permits are not required for a combination of vehicles hauling poles, girders, columns, or similar objects of great length if only the legal length is exceeded. The width, height and weight of the combination by be legal.
- Vehicles over 10 feet in width shall display 18 inch by 18 inch red flags front and rear on the left side unless other warning devices or escort vehicles are required or prescribed.
- Escort vehicles may be required for oversize movements of extreme width or length or if highway conditions warrant them.
Maximum legal weight for State Highways and Designated Highways
- Maximum load per inch width of tire 800 pounds
- Maximum wheel loading 11,200 pounds
- Maximum weight, one axle 22,400 pounds
- Maximum weight, any two consecutive axles, less than eight (8) feet apart 36,000 pounds.
- Axles less than 46 inches apart, measured from axles' centers, are considered one axle.
- For any vehicle or combination of vehicles having a total gross weight less than 71,000 pounds, the higher of the following shall apply:
- The total weight of all axles shall not exceed 34,000 pounds plus 1,000 pounds for each foot and major fraction of a foot of the distance from the center of the foremost axle to the center of the rear most axle, or
- The overall gross weight on a group of two or more consecutive axles shall not exceed the weight produced by application of the following formula: W=500 (LN/N-1 + 12N +36) where W equals overall gross weight on any group of two or more consecutive axles to the nearest 500 pounds, L equals distance in feet from the center of the foremost axle to the center of the rearmost axle of any group of two or more consecutive axles, and N equals number of axles in group under consideration, except that two consecutive sets of tandem axles may carry a gross load 34,000 pounds each providing the overall distance between the first and last axles of such consecutive sets of tandem axles is thirty-six (36) feet or more.
SPECIAL HAULING AND DIVISIBLE LOAD PERMITS
The CONTRACTOR shall secure and maintain for a period of one year, such insurance policies, naming the COUNTY OF MONROE AND THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION as additional insured and shall protect those named including their officers, employees and agents, from claims for bodily injuries, death or property damage which may arise from operations under this Agreement whether such operations be by the CONTRACTOR or by any subcontractor or anyone employed by them directly or indirectly. The following insurance policies with insurance companies authorized to do business in New York State are required:
- Statutory Worker's Compensation or a signed New York State Worker's Compensation Board Form C-105.21 (8-98); and
- General Liability Insurance; single limits of liability $1,000,000; or
- Owner's and Contractor's Protective Liability covering operations of subcontractors, with same limits; and
- Contractual Liability covering Hold Harmless Clause; and
- Automobile Public Liability and Property Damage covering both owned and hired vehicles. (Bodily injury $1,000,000.00 each person -- $1,000,000.00 each accident); and
- If any of the rating classifications embody property damage exclusions X (explosion), C (collapse), or U (upheaval), coverage for eliminating such exclusions must be provided with same limits; and
- 30 days written notice of cancellation in favor of the COUNTY OF MONROE; and
- Certificate Holder shall be the COUNTY OF MONROE, Department of Transportation, City Place Suite 6100, 50 West Main Street, Rochester, New York 14614-1231.
Certification of such insurance shall be filed with the COUNTY OF MONROE ten (10) days prior to the start of the work. The insurance certification shall be subject to the approval by the County Law Department for adequacy of protection.
A Policy on Geometric Design of Highways and Streets. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2004.
Department of Justice 28 Code of Federal Regulations Appendix A. (ADA Accessibility Guidelines). 26 July 1991.
Handbook of Steel Drainage and Highway Construction Products. American Iron and Steel Institute, Third ed. Washington, D.C.: 1983.
Highway Capacity Manual Special Report 209. Transportation Research Board, Washington D.C.: 1994.
Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices. New York State Department of Transportation Albany, New York: 2001.
McKinney. McKinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. State Highway Law. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Co., 1979.
McKinney's Consolidated Laws of New York Annotated. General Municipal Law. St. Paul, Minn.: West Publishing Co., 1986.
Proceedings of the Legislature of Monroe County. 1971.
Requirements for the Design and Construction of Underground Utility Installations within the State Highway Right-Of-Way. New York State Department of Transportation, 1997.
Monroe County Department of Transportation Standard Specifications.
Monroe County Department of Transportation Standard Details.
Standard Specifications Construction and Materials. New York State Department of Transportation, 2002.
Stover, Vergil G. and Frank J. Koepke. Transportation and Land Development. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Prentice Hall, 1988.
Trip Generation. Institute of Transportation Engineers. Seventh ed. January 2003.
New York State Code of Federal Regulations. Industrial Code Rule 53 and 753.
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